Cacti are notorious for growing sharp spines that deter predators from starting a feeding frenzy. One may argue that the single biggest reason why cacti are so drought-tolerant and resilient is because of their spines.
The spines serve many purposes – outside of providing an obvious defense mechanism – including the ability to conserve and capture water. Let’s go over the details.
|Purpose of Spines
|Collecting Dew Water
|The spines perfectly angled to collect water
|The sharp spines easily pierce the skin extremely easily, deterring predators
|Each spine provides the cactus with shade from the harsh desert sun
It’s hard to believe, but an important function of cactus spines is to provide shade to the plant. So how can these tiny spines offer any shade from the harsh desert sun?
The cumulative effect of each spine provides the cactus with a decent amount of shade. After all, there are thousands of spines on the average cactus, covering a huge surface area that can provide shade.
Moreover, the spines also reduce the rate of water evaporation, which is extremely important in the arid desert climate. Although cacti have thick layers of waxy coating, their stems can still lose water due to extreme heat. The spines are extremely efficient at minimizing water evaporation and preventing fluid from leaching away.
And here’s the best part: the spines provide shade without preventing photosynthesis. This careful balance of keeping the harsh light out and only letting enough sunlight in allows the plant to keep the wheels of photosynthesis churning.
Some species of cacti, such as the Cholla, go one step further by helping with propagation. Cholla plants have spines with small barbs at their tips that are incredibly sensitive to the nearby environment.
This allows certain segments of the plant to detach and hitch a ride on any object that crosses paths with it (such as a human or an animal). As a result, the cholla segment finds a way to spread and grow a new plant.
The average cactus can go without water for weeks, months, and even years. This is why they have developed an extensive water collection system with the spines playing an important role. The highly sensitive spines provide a convenient path for water from the atmosphere to condense.
In this sense, the spines are very similar to blades of grass with a tiny exception: they are much smaller and in greater quantity.
A closer inspection of each spine reveals that they are specially designed at an angle to help with water collection. This provides a convenient path for water to make its way to the base of the cactus. Alte naively, the spine also redirects the water droplets toward the stem for collection when the payload is heavy enough.
The cactus has an incredibly efficient root system that quickly collects any water it comes across. For many cacti, the water collected from moisture may be their only water source for years.
The desert is a cruel place for both animals and plants. Food can be incredibly hard to come by. Plants provide a convenient source of nutrition and water to animals. But the incredibly resilient cactus has spines that deter predators.
Animals that are desperate enough to sink their teeth into the sharp spines are at risk of infection and death. This is why it’s simply not worth the pain and effort for animals to seek out cacti.
It is worth noting that the spines are only efficient at deterring larger animals and insects. Smaller pests may be able to find a haven under the spines, but they can’t do much damage.
And even if an animal can penetrate the cactus’s sharp spines and ignore the pain, its fluid content will leak out and spread to the surrounding area.
Spines grow from existing areolas when the plant is still growing. Mature spines will often not grow back if they are damaged. The only way to grow a new spine is by growing new areolas when the cactus is still growing. You should handle cacti with care because any damage to their spines may be permanent.
However, as long as your cactus is still growing, it should be able to develop new areolas that will sprout up new spines. Some cacti are slow growers, and it may take a while to produce new areolas. You can speed up the process with the help of fertilization and positioning the plant in full sunlight.
Try to be careful when introducing the cactus to full sunlight. Get it to acclimate to the sunlight at a gradual pace to minimize shock.
Nearly all plants have thorns but only a select variety of spines. Although spines and leaves look very similar, they have a few major differences. It helps to think of spines as the cactus equivalent of leaves, whereas thorns act like branches.
Plants that contain thorns also tend to have leaves. On the other hand, plants with spines don’t have leaves.
Cacti have needle-like spines that look and feel sharp. They are absolutely necessary for the plant’s survival and serve a multitude of purposes. But should you worry about getting poisoned if you were pricked by cacti?
The good news is that cacti spines are not poisonous. The only problem is that cactus spines can cause an incredible amount of damage to your skin. Once they pierce the skin, they tend to sink into the skin and muscle. This makes it harder to remove them. Even if you manage to remove the spines, their barbs tend to stay in the flesh.
A single cactus spine has been known to remove a half a pound slab of meat! This is why you should be very careful when dealing with cacti and seek medical help.
A major risk with cacti spines is that they can stay on the skin for months. Over time, the spines will leave pustules that can leave black marks on dead skin. In some cases, the spines can cause serious infections that may turn septic if you don’t seek medical help right away.
The only way to get rid of some spines is via surgical removal. People have been reported to get gangrene following a bacterial infection that often resulted in amputation.
This is why you should get the spines removed as quickly as possible. But try not to use your teeth or bare hands to help remove the spines.
This is because the spines could lodge into your tongue or lips, making the wound even worse. The best course of action is to remove the spines with the help of pliers or scissors. Step one is to cut the bigger chunks of spines using the scissors. Step two is to remove the remaining bits with smaller tweezers.
So there you have it, a detailed look at why cacti in California have spines instead of leaves. One can argue that the spines are actually leaves because they serve a similar purpose. Just make sure to handle the spines with care because they can hurt!
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Hi! I’m Sophia, and I love plants – especially an expert in growing house plants. I stay in Chicago, United States of America, and through my blog and social media platforms, provide tips and tricks on how to grow healthy, vibrant plants indoors. Check out more here.